1. Social housing spending is highly decentralised in many but not all countries

OECD social housing spending autonomy indicator (a higher value means greater decentralisation)

Source: Fiscal Federalism 2022

  1. Countries use very different models to provide social housing

Share of total social rental housing stock by type of providers, 2020 or latest available year

Source: OECD Affordable Housing Database.

  1. Social housing responsabilities are fragmented across levels of government

Percentage of respondents indicating that they have responsability, by category of institution

Source: OECD Fiscal Decentralisation Database

  1. Fragmentation at the municipal level can exacerbate housing governance issues related to too much decentralisation

Decomposition of municipalities by population size

Source: OECD Subnational Government Finance Dataset

  1. Country-level land-use planning systems mostly provide general outlines

Type of guidelines

Source: Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD: Country Fact Sheets

  1. Land-use decisions are often complicated by fragmentation and overlap across levels of government

OECD Land-use Governance Indicator, 2019

Note: High values indicate fragmented decision making and/or overlap across levels of government.

Source: OECD (2021), Brick by Brick: Building Better Housing Policies

  1. In most countries, multiple ministries are involved in housing policymaking

Number of ministries involved in housing policymaking

Source: Phillips, L. (2020), Decentralisation and inter-governmental relations in the housing sector

  1. Property taxes are an important source of financing for local and subnational governments

Share of recurrent taxes on immovable property in subnational government revenues, 2019 or latest available year

Source: OECD (2022), Housing Taxation in OECD Countries